Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (CSIA) (IATA: BOM, ICAO: VABB), formerly Sahar International Airport, is the primary international airport serving the Mumbai Metropolitan Area, India. It is the second busiest airport in the country in terms of passenger traffic and international traffic after Delhi, and was the 35th busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in 2015 according to Airports Council International. The airport is the busiest in the country in terms of cargo traffic. The airport has five operating terminals spread over an operational area of 750 hectares (1,850 acres) and handles more than 780 aircraft movements per day. It handled a record 51 movements in one hour on 16 September 2014. It won the 2015 ASQ Best Airport Award in the 25-40 million passengers per annum category by Airports Council International. It has also won the “Best Airport in India and Central Asia” award at the Skytrax 2016 World Airport Awards. It is one of the two airports in India to have implemented Airport Collaborative Decision Making (A-CDM) to ensure timely takeoffs and landings.
The airport is operated by Mumbai International Airport Limited (MIAL), a Joint Venture between the Airports Authority of India and the GVK Industries Ltd led consortium which was appointed in February 2006 to carry out the modernisation of the Airport. The new integrated terminal T2 was inaugurated on 10 January 2014 and opened for international operations on 12 February 2014. A dedicated six lane, elevated road connecting the new terminal with the main arterial Western Express Highway was also opened to the public the same day.
The airport is named after the 17th-century Maratha emperor, Chhatrapati Shivaji and its IATA airport code – “BOM” – is derived from Bombay, Mumbai’s former name. It is situated across the suburbs of Santacruz, Vile Parle and Sahar village in Andheri with the PIN code 400099.
- Air India Express
- Air India Regional
- Go Air
- Jet Airways
- Spice Jet
The Juhu Aerodrome functioned as Mumbai’s sole airport until 1942. Due to operational constraints imposed by its low-level location and proximity to the Arabian Sea coastline making it vulnerable during the monsoon season, a move further inland became necessary.
RAF Santacruz was set up in 1942. It was a bigger airfield than Juhu and was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947. The Airport covered an area of about 1,500 acres (610 ha) and initially had three runways. The apron existed on the south side of runway 09/27, and the area, referred to today as the “Old Airport”, houses, among others, maintenance hangars of Air India, Air Works India and MIAL’s General Aviation Terminal.
The land of Sahar Airport originally belonged to Bombay’s sons-of-soil indigenous East Indian Community. The land was originally taken by the British “for war purposes” with the explicit promise to be returned after the war (World War 2). Many of the East Indian Community were forced to give their lands, much of it was never used but never returned to original owners. The Sahar Airport today is used commercially but the original owners have not been given any incentive or privilege. The demand of compensation or return of lands as originally promised has been neglected by the authorities.
The airport consists of two passenger terminals: Terminal 1 at Santacruz for domestic flights and Terminal 2 at Sahar for both international and domestic flights. While both terminals use the same airside facilities, they are physically separated on the cityside, requiring a 15–20-minute (landside) drive between them. MIAL operates coach shuttle services between the two terminals for the convenience of transit passengers.
The airport has two intersecting runways. Both runways have been upgraded to Code F, which means they can accommodate larger aircraft like the Airbus A380. Following a presentation in March 2011 by UK’s air traffic service provider NATS on how the capacity of the airport can be increased, MIAL set a target of 48 aircraft movements an hour in an effort to reduce congestion at the airport. Both runways were operated simultaneously especially during peak hours to try and attain this target. The airport has two main passenger terminal complexes. Terminal 1 at Santacruz is dedicated for domestic passengers. The new Terminal 2 at Sahar is an integrated terminal catering to both international and domestic passengers.
Terminal 1-A opened in April 1992, and was used solely by Indian Airlines (now Air India). In 2005, Kingfisher Airlines also began operating from 1A, after it entered into an agreement to source all ground handling and terminal space from Indian Airlines. In June 2013, shortly after Kingfisher ceased operations, MIAL allocated the vacant space to GoAir. From 1 October 2015, Air India moved all of its T1A operations to the new T2 Terminal. GoAir moved its departure operations to T1B on that same date, resulting in the closure of the T1A departures level. GoAir, however, continued to use T1A’s arrivals level until 15 March 2016 when its arrivals were also shifted to T1B.
Larsen & Toubro (L&T) was awarded the contract to construct the new Terminal 2. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM) was the architectural designer of the project. SOM also provided the schematic design of structure and MEP and the detailed structural design of the roof. Detailed design of the foundations and the rest of the structure and civil works, the MEP, IT and airport systems, including the full construction documentation of the project was carried out by L&T’s inhouse design team, EDRC (Engineering Design and Research Center). The terminal covers a land area of 210,000 square metres and will replace the existing International Terminal (part of which has already been demolished). The entire project was estimated to cost ?98 billion (US$1.5 billion) and employ over 12,000 workers.
The Air Cargo Complex, located west of the International passenger Terminal (T2), has been in operation since 1977. The cargo apron is capable of handling five wide-bodied aircraft. In 2009–10, the airport handled 385,937 metric tones of International Cargo and 165,252 metric tones of Domestic Cargo. Air India (AI) and Mumbai International Airport Pvt Ltd (MIAL) have been appointed as custodians of cargo by the Central Board of Excise and Customs at Mumbai. The Cargo Terminal has a Centre for Perishable Cargo (CPC) with an area of 1844 m2 for perishable and temperature sensitive international export shipments, strong rooms of 115 m2 for storage of valuable cargo and storage areas for dangerous goods in both import and export warehouses, dedicated Unaccompanied Baggage handling and clearance areas and 9 coloured X-ray cargo screening machines for export cargo.
Apart from handling 65% of the international volumes at CSIA, MIAL also operates a Common User Domestic Cargo Facility. After taking over the redevelopment work of the airport in 2006, MIAL commissioned an offshore Common User Terminal (CUT) near the Marol pipeline as a temporary arrangement. In June 2016, MIAL opened a new domestic cargo CUT near the Western Express Highway in Vile Parle.
The CUT has been outsourced to Concor Air Ltd. on a Build-operate-transfer basis. The terminal has the capacity to handle 300,000 metric tonnes of cargo annually and is built on an area of 60,000 square feet. The Cargo Terminal is an “elevated terminal structure” where all arriving domestic cargo is managed from the basement level while departing cargo is handled at the upper level. Air India and Blue Dart handle their own domestic cargo operations at their own terminals.
Awards and honours
Best Airport in India and Central Asia at the Skytrax 2016 World Airport Awards.
Best Airport in the World for 2015 in the 25-40 million passengers per annum category by the Airport Council International.
Third-best in the world in the 25–40 million passengers category by Airports Council International in 2011.
Best Airport in Public-Private Partnership by the Air Passengers Association of India (APAI).
Aeronautical Excellence Airport of the Year 2008 from Frost & Sullivan.